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Ken

Unfortunately it is pretty much impossible to catch someone who is using a synthetic form of something natural and has access to a laboratory. Take someone who is a good sprinter but has 2% less than the average in something that varies by plus or minus 5% in the population. They will just slowly raise the level artificially until they are 3-4% above the average. Maybe what we should do is make it the rule that you can dope as much as you like, but you must stay below certain levels.

Kaiser

If you set that threshold, then optimization theory will predict that everyone will now dope at that level. So it's a hard problem to solve.

In the book, I use the term "chemical positive" to describe positive findings assuming perfect testing conditions but like you pointed out, there are lots of reasons why a chemical positive is blocked.

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