Working with multiple dimensions, an example from Germany
Jul 15, 2020
An anonymous reader submitted this mirrored bar chart about violent acts by extremists in the 16 German states.
At first glance, this looks like a standard design. On a second look, you might notice what the reader discovered- the chart used two different scales, one for each side. The left side (red) depicting left-wing extremism is artificially compressed relative to the right side (blue). Not sure if this reflects the political bias of the publication - but in any case, this distortion means the only way to consume this chart is to read the numbers.
Even after fixing the scales, this design is challenging for the reader. It's unnatural to compare two years by looking first below then above. It's not simple to compare across states, and even harder to compare left- and right-wing extremism (due to mirroring).
The chart feels busy because the entire dataset is printed on it. I appreciate not including a redundant horizontal axis. (I wonder if the designer first removed the axis, then edited the scale on one side, not realizing the distortion.) Another nice touch, hidden in the legend, is the country totals.
I present two alternatives.
The first is a small-multiples "bumps chart".
Each plot presents the entire picture within a state. You can see the general level of violence, the level of left- and right-wing extremism, and their year-on-year change. States can be compared holistically.
Several German state names are rather long, so I explored a horizontal orientation. In this case, a connected dot plot may be more appropriate.
The sign of a good multi-dimensional visual display is whether readers can easily learn complex relationships. Depending on the question of interest, the reader can mentally elevate parts of this chart. One can compare the set of blue arrows to the set of red arrows, or focus on just blue arrows pointing right, or red arrows pointing left, or all arrows for Berlin, etc.
[P.S. Anonymous reader said the original chart came from the Augsburger newspaper. This link in German contains more information.]
The chart is distorted in another way, one might argue. The chart presents absolute numbers of acts of violence by state. However, the states differ largely in terms of their number of inhabitants. North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW, top of the list) has roughly five times as many citizens as Berlin but about the same number of acts of political violence. Sachsen-Anhalt even has only 1/8 the population of NRW. Taking that into account Sachsen-Anhalt has more than 3 times the number of acts of violence as NRW.
Posted by: Surfguard | Jul 30, 2020 at 04:57 AM
SG: absolutely! The same reason why Covid19 charts should show counts per million when comparing nations.
Posted by: Kaiser | Jul 30, 2020 at 11:38 AM