Here is how the Economist sees it - geographically speaking.
In the Trifecta Checkup analysis, one of the questions to ask is "What does the visual say?" and with respect to the question being asked.
The question is how much has the problem of human waste in SF grew from 2011 to 2017.
What does the visual say?
The number of complaints about human waste has increased from 2011 to 2014 to 2017.
The areas where there are complaints about human waste expanded.
The worst areas are around downtown, and that has not changed during this period of time.
Now, what does the visual not say?
Let's make a list:
- How many complaints are there in total in any year?
- How many complaints are there in each neighborhood in any year?
- What's the growth rate in number of complaints, absolute or relative?
- What proportion of complaints are found in the worst neighborhoods?
- What proportion of the area is covered by the green dots on each map?
- What's the growth in terms of proportion of areas covered by the green dots?
- Does the density of green dots reflect density of human waste or density of human beings?
- Does no green dot indicate no complaints or below the threshold of the color scale?
- Is the growth in complaints a result of more reporting or more human waste?
- Is each complainant unique? Or do some people complain multiple times?
- Does each piece of human waste lead to one and only one complaint? In other words, what is the relationship between the count of complaints and the count of human waste?
- Is it easy to distinguish between human waste and animal waste?
- Are all complaints about human waste valid? Does anyone verify complaints?
- Are the plotted locations describing where the human waste is or where the complaint was made?
- Can all complaints be treated identically as a count of one?
- What is the per-capita rate of complaints?
In other words, the set of maps provides almost all no information about the excrement problem in San Francisco.
After you finish working, go back and ask what the visual is saying about the question you're trying to address!
As a reference, I found this map of the population density in San Francisco (link):