How does the U.K. vote in the U.N.?

Through my twitter feed, I found my way to this chart, made by jamie_bio.

Jamie_bio_un_votes25032021

This is produced using R code even though it looks like a slide.

The underlying dataset concerns votes at the United Nations on various topics. Someone has already classified these topics. Jamie looked at voting blocs, specifically, countries whose votes agree most often or least often with the U.K.

If you look at his Github, this is one in a series of works he produced to hone his dataviz skills. Ultimately, I think this effort can benefit from some re-thinking. However, I also appreciate the work he has put into this.

Let's start with the things I enjoyed.

Given the dataset, I imagine the first visual one might come up with is a heatmap that shows countries in rows and topics in columns. That would work ok, as any standard chart form would but it would be a data dump that doesn't tell a story. There are almost 200 countries in the entire dataset. The countries can only be ordered in one way so if it's ordered for All Votes, it's not ordered for any of the other columns.

What Jamie attempts here is story-telling. The design leads the reader through a narrative. We start by reading the how-to-read-this box on the top left. This tells us that he's using a lunar eclipse metaphor. A full circle in blue indicates 0% agreement while a full circle in white indicates 100% agreement. The five circles signal that he's binning the agreement percentages into five discrete buckets, which helps simplify our understanding of the data.

Then, our eyes go to the circle of circles, labelled "All votes". This is roughly split in half, with the left side showing mostly blue and the right showing mostly white. That's because he's extracting the top 5 and bottom 5 countries, measured by their vote alignment with the U.K. The countries names are clearly labelled.

Next, we see the votes broken up by topics. I'm assuming not all topics are covered but six key topics are highlighted on the right half of the page.

What I appreciate about this effort is the thought process behind how to deliver a message to the audience. Selecting a specific subset that addresses a specific question. Thinning the materials in a way that doesn't throw the kitchen sink at the reader. Concocting the circular layout that presents a pleasing way of consuming the data.

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Now, let me talk about the things that need more work.

I'm not convinced that he got his message across. What is the visual telling us? Half of the cricle are aligned with the U.K. while half aren't so the U.K. sits on the fence on every issue? But this isn't the message. It's a bit of a mirage because the designer picked out the top 5 and bottom 5 countries. The top 5 are surely going to be voting almost 100% with the U.K. while the bottom 5 are surely going to be disagreeing with the U.K. a lot.

I did a quick sketch to understand the whole distribution:

Redo_junkcharts_ukvotes_overview_2

This is not intended as a show-and-tell graphic, just a useful way of exploring the dataset. You can see that Arms Race/Disarmament and Economic Development are "average" issues that have the same form as the "All issues" line. There are a small number of countries that are extremely aligned with the UK, and then about 50 countries that are aligned over 50% of the time, then the other 150 countries are within the 30 to 50% aligned. On human rights, there is less alignment. On Palestine, there is more alignment.

What the above chart shows is that the top 5 and bottom 5 countries both represent thin slithers of this distribution, which is why in the circular diagrams, there is little differentiation. The two subgroups are very far apart but within each subgroup, there is almost no variation.

Another issue is the lunar eclipse metaphor. It's hard to wrap my head around a full white circle indicating 100% agreement while a full blue circle shows 0% agreement.

In the diagrams for individual topics, the two-letter acronyms for countries are used instead of the country names. A decoder needs to be provided, or just print the full names.

 

 

 

 

 

 


To explain or to eliminate, that is the question

Today, I take a look at another project from Ray Vella's class at NYU.

Rich Get Richer Assigment 2 top

(The above image is a honeypot for "smart" algorithms that don't know how to handle image dimensions which don't fit their shadow "requirement". Human beings should proceed to the full image below.)

As explained in this post, the students visualized data about regional average incomes in a selection of countries. It turns out that remarkable differences persist in regional income disparity between countries, almost all of which are more advanced economies.

Rich Get Richer Assigment 2 Danielle Curran_1

The graphic is by Danielle Curran.

I noticed two smart decisions.

First, she came up with a different main metric for gauging regional disparity, landing on a metric that is simple to grasp.

Based on hints given on the chart, I surmised that Danielle computed the change in per-capita income in the richest and poorest regions separately for each country between 2000 and 2015. These regional income growth values are expressed in currency, not indiced. Then, she computed the ratio of these growth rates, for each country. The end result is a simple metric for each country that describes how fast income has been growing in the richest region relative to the poorest region.

One of the challenges of this dataset is the complex indexing scheme (discussed here). Carlos' solution keeps the indices but uses design to facilitate comparisons. Danielle avoids the indices altogether.

The reader is relieved of the need to make comparisons, and so can focus on differences in magnitude. We see clearly that regional disparity is by far the highest in the U.K.

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The second smart decision Danielle made is organizing the countries into clusters. She took advantage of the horizontal axis which does not encode any data. The branching structure places different clusters of countries along the axis, making it simple to navigate. The locations of these clusters are cleverly aligned to the map below.

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Danielle's effort is stronger on communications while Carlos' effort provides more information. The key is to understand who your readers are. What proportion of your readers would want to know the values for each country, each region and each year?

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A couple of suggestions

a) The reference line should be set at 1, not 0, for a ratio scale. The value of 1 happens when the richest region and the poorest region have identical per-capita incomes.

b) The vertical scale should be fixed.


Displaying convoluted indices

I reviewed another batch of projects from Ray Vella's class at NYU. The following piece by Carlos Lasso made an impression on me. There are no pyrotechnics but he made one decision that added a lot of clarity to the graphic.

The Rich get Richer - Carlos Lasso

The underlying dataset gauges the income disparity of regions within nine countries. The richest and the poorest regions are selected for each country. Two time points are shown. Altogether, there are 9x2x2 = 36 numbers.

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Let's take a deeper look at these numbers. Notice they are not in dollars, or any kind of currency, despite being about incomes. The numbers are index values, relative to 100. What does the reference level of 100 represent?

The value of 100 crosses every bar of the chart so that 100 has meaning in each country and each year. In fact, there are 18 definitions of 100 in this chart with 36 numbers, one for each country-year pair. The average national income is set to 100 for each country in each year. This is a highly convoluted indexing strategy.

The following chart is a re-visualization of the bottom part of Carlos' infographic.

Junkcharts_richricher2021_2columns

I shifted the scale of the horizontal axis. The value of zero does not hold special meaning in Carlos' chart. I subtracted 100 from the relative regional income indices, thus all regions with income above the average have positive values while those below the national average have negative values. (There are other challenges with the ratio scale, which I'll skip over in this post. The minimum value is -100 while the maximum value can be very large.)

The rescaling is not really the point of this post. To see what Carlos did, we have to look at the example shown in class. The graphic which the students were asked to improve has the following structure:

Junkcharts_richricher2021_1column

This one-column structure places four bars beside each country, grouped by year. Carlos pulled the year dimension out, and showed the same dataset in two columns.

This small change makes a great difference in ease of comprehension. Carlos' version unpacks the two key types of comparisons one might want to make: trend within a given country (horizontal comparison) and contrast between countries in a given year (vertical comparison).

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I always try to avoid convoluted indexing. The cost of using such indices is the big how-to-read-this box.


Speaking to the choir

A friend found the following chart about the "carbon cycle", and sent me an exasperated note, having given up on figuring it out. The chart came from a report, and was reprinted in Ars Technica (link).

Gcp_s09_2021_global_perturbation-800x371

The problem with the chart is that the designer is speaking to the choir. One must know a lot about the carbon cycle already to make sense of everything that's going on.

We see big and small arrows pointing up or down. Each arrow has a number attached to it, plus a range inside brackets. These numbers have no units, and it's not obvious what they are measuring.

The arrows come in a variety of colors. The colors are explained by labels but the labels dexcribe apparently unrelated concepts (e.g. fossil CO2 and land-use change).

Interspersed with the arrows is a singular dot. The dot also has a number attached to it. The number wears a plus sign, which signals it's being treated differently than the quantities with up arrows.

The singular dot is an outcast, ostracized from the community of dots in the bottom part of the chart. These dots have labels but no numbers. They come in different sizes but no scale is provided.

The background is divided into three parts, showing the atmosphere, the land mass, and the ocean. The placement of the arrows and dots suggests each measured quantity concerns one of these three parts. Well... except the dot labeled "surface sediments" that sit on the boundary of the land mass and the ocean.

The three-way classification is only one layer of the chart. A different classification is embedded in the color scheme. The gray, light green, and aquamarine arrows in the sky find their counterparts in the dots of the land mass, and the ocean.

What's more, the boundaries between land and sky, and between land and ocean are also painted with those colors. These boundary segments have been given different colors so that the lengths of these segments seem to contain data but we aren't sure what.

At this point, I noticed thin arrows which appear to depict back and forth flows. There may be two types of such exchanges, one indicated by a cycle, the other by two straight arrows in opposite directions. The cycles have no numbers while each pair of straight thin arrows gets two numbers, always identical.

At the bottom of the chart is a annotation in red: "Budget imbalance = -1.0". Presumably some formula ties the numbers shown above to this -1.0 result. We still don't know the units, and it's unclear if -1.0 is a bad number. A negative number shown in red typically indicates a bad number but how bad is it?

Finally, on the top right corner, I found a legend. It's not obvious at first because the legend symbols (arrows and dots) are shown in gray, a color not used elsewhere on the chart. It appears as if it represents another color category. The legend labels do little for me. What is an "anthropogenic flux"? What does the unit of "GtCO2" stand for? Other jargon includes "carbon cycling" and "stocks". The entire diagram is titled "carbon cycle" while the "carbon cycling" thin arrows are only a small part of the diagram.

The bottom line is I have no idea what this chart is saying to me, other than that the earth is a complex system, and that the designer has tried valiantly to impregnate the diagram with lots of information. If I am well read in environmental science, my experience is likely different.