Bloomberg did a very nice feature on how drought has been causing havoc with river transportation of grains and other commodities in the U.S., which included several well-executed graphics.
I'm particularly attracted to this flow chart/sankey diagram that shows the flows of grains from various U.S. ports to foreign countries.
It looks really great.
Here are some things one can learn from this chart:
- The Mississippi River (blue flow) is by far the most important conduit of American grain exports
- China is by far the largest importer of American grains
- Mexico is the second largest importer of American grains, and it has a special relationship with the "interior" ports (yellow). Notice how the Interior almost exclusively sends grains to Mexico
- Similarly, the Puget Sound almost exclusively trades with China
The above list is impressive for one chart.
Some key questions are not as easy to see from this layout:
- What proportion of the total exports does the Mississippi River account for? (Turns out to be almost exactly half.)
- What proportion of the total exports go to China? (About 40%. This question is even harder than the previous one because of all the unlabeled values for the smaller countries.)
- What is the relative importance of different ports to Japan/Philippines/Indonesia/etc.? (Notice how the green lines merge from the other side of the country names.)
- What is the relative importance of any of the countries listed, outside the top 5 or so?
- What is the ranking of importance of export nations to each port? For Mississippi River, it appears that the countries may have been drawn from least important (up top) to most important (down below). That is not the case for the other ports... otherwise the threads would tie up into knots.
Some of the features that make the chart look pretty are not data-driven.
See this artificial "hole" in the brown branch.
In this part of the flow, there are two tiny outflows to Myanmar and Yemen, so most of the goods that got diverted to the right side ended up merging back to the main branch. However, the creation of this hole allows a layering effect which enhances the visual cleanliness.
Next, pay attention to the yellow sub-branches:
At the scale used by the designer, all of the countries shown essentially import about the same amount from the Interior (yellow). Notice the special treatment of Singapore and Phillippines. Instead of each having a yellow sub-branch coming off the "main" flow, these two countries share the sub-branch, which later splits.